Water is a fundamental resource, both for life and for agriculture. This has become more evident than ever in recent years due to climate change. According to data from the Global Drought Observatory, as of August 2022, Europe was in an alarming condition, with a lack of moisture in the soil and the resulting dry vegetation, exceptionally hot weather that increased the risk of fires, and very low water levels in the rivers. Last summer’s drought in Europe was the worst in 500 years. Also in Italy, 2022 was a critical year, with rainfall halved with respect to the previous year, so much so that it was classified as the year with the greatest levels of drought, according to research by the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Research Council.
In addition to drought, it should be noted that in recent years there has been an intensification of abnormal weather phenomena, which can give rise to flooding or landslides, particularly in those territories characterised by a lack of forest cover or intensive agronomic practices. According to Legambiente’s Climate City Observatory, there were 310 extreme weather events in 2022, 55% more than in 2021.
This is a situation that creates critical situations for agriculture, because there is insufficient water precisely at those times of the year when crops need it most, with serious consequences for harvests and production. Even wells, which have always been a source of water storage, are no longer reliable with the lowering of the water table: a 20-metre deep well is no longer a guarantee. In fact, the lack of rain and snow, as well as the increasingly warmer climate, lead to a lower reserve in the aquifers. The water contained in the well, then, due to its low level, is characterised by a high presence of debris, sand and clay, which ruins the pump and the pipe used to extract the water.
Aware of this situation, Caprari has designed the 4” and 6” submersible electric pumps from the Desert Energy series, designed for applications with high solids and sand content, up to 300 g/m3 thanks to the new SAND-OUT System® CAPRARI International Patent. These are pumps for small and medium-sized wells, which combine high performance with a long service life, so that savings can be made over time, even under extreme conditions of use. They have an innovative valve, designed to eliminate head losses, made of stainless steel that ensures high robustness and with an elongated shape that allows easier maintenance. In addition, the DEFENDER® CAPRARI International Patent guarantees corrosion resistance.
Given the changes taking place in the water table, it is advisable to make some modifications to the systems, installing additional filtering systems and appropriate valves to modify the flow rate of the well, so as to limit the presence of debris and avoid the creation of turbulent motions inside the pipe, which would cause wear over time.
These are solutions designed for wells that have a depth calculated on the basis of how the water table was twenty years ago for example. However, in newly constructed wells the lowering of the water table will result in new depths, which require pumps with greater power and thus result in higher extraction costs, particularly at a time with an energy crisis such as that which we are currently facing. Here too, Caprari is an ally thanks to its submersible electric pumps from the Desert Energy series Desert Energy series or the cast iron models from the Energy series: both coupled with Caprari submersible motors they ensure high energy savings while maintaining high efficiency.
P-series pumps are an alternative to submersible pumps for use in wells. They utilise the extreme reliability and robustness of submersible pumps and surface electric motors, with very high degrees of efficiency (efficiency class IE3/IE4). In addition, P-series pumps can be driven by endothermic motors and tractors, thus allowing maximum flexibility of use.